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Organize references

Sort the references in groups, update the references, and avoid duplicates.

Group references

The references can be organized into custom groups. You can have up to 5,000 groups in one EndNote library.

Create group

  1. From the top menu: Groups > Create Group
  2. Name the Group
  3. Select the reference(s) you want to include in a group
  4. From the top menu: Groups > Add references to… > select the appropriate group (or select the references and drag and drop them into the group)

Create Group Set

  1. From the top menu: Groups > Create Group Set
  2. Name the Group Set
  3. You can drag and drop existing groups into the set, or create new ones under it by right-clicking on the group set and Create Group

Create Smart Group

"Smart groups" are based on criteria you set. References in the library will automatically be added to the smart group if they match these criteria.

  1. From the top menu: Groups > Create Smart Group
  2. Name the Smart Group
  3. Select search fields (Any Field is the most generel field): e.g. Title: zika AND Any Field: pregnancy
  4. Create

References in your library which match these criteria will be added to the Smart Group

Combine groups

  1. From the top menu: Groups > Create From Groups…
  2. Name the combined Group
  3. Choose which groups you want to combine and how to combine them (with AND, OR and NOT operators)

Delete Group

  1. From the top menu: Groups > Delete Group
  2. The references from the deleted group will still remain in the library (All References).

Find Reference Updates

Check to see if more or newer information is available about the references.

  1. Select the relevant references
  2. From the top menu: References > Find Reference Updates...
  3. EndNote will look for information online
  4. Choose Update All Fields or Update Empty Fields for each or all selected references
  5. Save Updates


  1. Select All References in the group pane to view all the references in the library.
  2. From the top menu: References > Find Duplicates.
    EndNote 20: From the top menu: Library> Find Duplicates.
  3. You will get a dialog box where you can compare the duplicates and choose which one you want to keep. The fields that may be different in the two references are highlighted so that you can easily copy over information before removing the one reference.

If you have a large number of duplicates and do not want to go through this process for all the references, you can select Cancel in the dialog box and then delete all the selected duplicates in the Duplicate References group.

Published May 4, 2020 2:27 PM - Last modified Mar. 25, 2021 3:45 PM